domingo, 7 de noviembre de 2010

Passive voice 1

La voz pasiva - The Passive Voice

Concepto de Voz Activa y Pasiva

Podemos enfocar la acción del verbo en el sujeto (voz activa) o en el objeto (voz pasiva).

Ejemplos:
Voz Activa:
The porter carries the bags. (el portero lleva los bolsos)
Voz Pasiva:
The bags are carried by the porter. (los bolsos son llevados por el portero)

Reglas gramaticales

La voz pasiva se forma utilizando:
verbo to be + verbo principal en participio (past participle).

Para transformar una oracion activa a pasiva tenemos en cuenta los siguientes puntos:
  • El objeto de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto de la pasiva
  • El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar "to be", en su mismo tiempo, junto al verbo principal en participio.
  • El sujeto de la oración principal pasa a ser complemento agente de la pasiva
  • Si hacemos mención en la oración al sujeto que realiza la acción (sujeto agente), éste irá normalmente introducido por la preposición by:

Tabla de cambios verbales en la transformación de Voz Activa a Voz Pasiva

Tomando en cuenta los puntos anteriormente mencionados, en este esquema vemos los cambios que sufre el tiempo verbal de una oracion activa al ser transformada a oracion pasiva.

Usamos como ejemplo: to write a letter (escribir una carta)

write (presente/present) / wrote (pasado/past) / written (participio/participle)


Tiempo verbal de la frase activa
Frase activa
Frase pasiva
present I write a letter The letter is written
present continuos I'm writing a letter The letter is being written
past I wrote a letter The letter was written
past continuos I was writing a letter The letter was being written
present perfect I've written a letter The letter has been written
past perfect I had written a letter The letter had been written
future I will write a letter The letter will be written
future II I'm going to write a letter The letter is going to be written
modals I have to write a letter The letter has to be written
modals I should write a letter The letter should be written
modals I must write a letter The letter must be written

Usos de la voz pasiva

  • Usamos la voz pasiva cuando queremos dar importancia a "lo que pasó" más que a quién hizo la acción.   
    Ejemplo:
    Her money was stolen. (su dinero fue robado)
  • Usamos la voz pasiva para mantener un mismo sujeto en varias frases:    
    Ejemplo:
    I met that woman. I was surprised at how attractive she was... (Me encontré con esa mujer. Me quedé sorprendido de lo hermosa que era.)
    En este ejemplo la persona se mantiene ella misma como sujeto.  
  • También usamos la voz pasiva para describir procesos científicos.
    Ejemplo:
    The water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 80° C. (El agua es hervida a una temperatura de entre 60 a 80 grados) 
Como en español, la voz pasiva se forma con el verbo 'to be' (ser) y el participio pasado.
They made this car in 1963. (active) This car was made in 1963. (passive)
El sujeto de un verbo en pasiva corresponde al objeto de un verbo en activa.

Spanish  is spoken in Argentina    PASIVA


(sujeto)






Argentinians speak  Spanish ACTIVA


(objeto)


Estudia la siguiente lista de las formas del verbo en pasiva.
(pp = participio pasado)
 
Verb Tense Structure Example
PRESENT SIMPLE am/are/is + pp Spanish is spoken here.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS   am/are/is being + pp Your questions are being answered.
FUTURE (WILL) will be + pp It’ll be painted by next week.
FUTURE (GOING TO) am/are/is going to be + pp Terry is going to be made redundant next year.
PAST SIMPLE was/were + pp We were invited to the party, but we didn’t go.
PAST CONTINUOUS was/were being + pp The hotel room was being cleaned when we got back from shopping.
PRESENT PERFECT have/has been + pp The President of America has been shot.
PAST PERFECT had been + pp When he got home he found that all of his money had been stolen.
FUTURE PERFECT will have been + pp Our baby will have been born before Christmas.
En las formas del ‘future progressive’ (will be being + pp) y ‘perfect progressive’ (has been being + pp) no es muy común su uso.
Para decir quién hacía la acción o qué la causaba, usa 'by'.
This house was built by my mother. / Esta casa fue construida por mi madre.
Washington was bombed by Pakistan. / Washington fue bombardeado por Pakistán.
La voz pasiva se suele utilizar cuando se desconoce o no interesa mencionar quién o qué hace la acción.
Es más normal encontrar en español formas con ‘se’, por ejemplo: ‘se habla’, ‘se alquila’ o verbos en plural como ‘venden’, ‘compran’.
German is spoken here / Aquí se habla alemán
When was this house built? / ¿Cuando se construyó ( fue construida) ésta casa? 
A lot of songs have been written about love / Se han escrito muchas canciones sobre el amor

The Passive Form

Your score is 0%.
Some of your answers are incorrect. Incorrect answers have been left in place for you to change.
The building in front of you (call) the Summer Palace. It (build) in 1728 and nowadays it (consider) one of the finest examples of baroque arquitecture in the country. The south façade of the building (restore) several times since 1728, but the rest of the building (keep) unaltered. Today the Palace (own) by the town hall and for the last ten years it (use) as a home for the Art Museum. Last year one of our most valuable paitings (steal) from the museum. At the moment a new wing (add) to host the contemporary art collections, with special security conditions.

Passive Voice

The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. In this lesson we look at how to construct the passive voice, when to use it and how to conjugate it.

Construction of the Passive Voice

The structure of the passive voice is very simple:
subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)
The main verb is always in its past participle form.
Look at these examples:
subjectauxiliary verb (to be) main verb (past participle) 
Wateris drunkby everyone.
100 peopleare employedby this company.
Iam paidin euro.
Wearenotpaidin dollars.
Arethey paidin yen?

Use of the Passive Voice

We use the passive when:
  • we want to make the active object more important
  • we do not know the active subject
 subjectverbobject
give importance to active object (President Kennedy)President Kennedywas killedby Lee Harvey Oswald.
active subject unknownMy wallethas been stolen.?
Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).
Look at this sentence:
  • He was killed with a gun.
Normally we use by to introduce the passive object. But the gun is not the active subject. The gun did not kill him. He was killed by somebody with a gun. In the active voice, it would be: Somebody killed him with a gun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody is the "agent" or "doer".

Conjugation for the Passive Voice

We can form the passive in any tense. In fact, conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy, as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. To form the required tense, we conjugate the auxiliary verb. So, for example:
  • present simple: It is made
  • present continuous: It is being made
  • present perfect: It has been made
Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses:
infinitiveto be washed
simplepresentIt is washed.
pastIt was washed.
futureIt will be washed.
conditionalIt would be washed.
continuouspresentIt is being washed.
pastIt was being washed.
futureIt will be being washed.
conditionalIt would be being washed.
perfect simplepresentIt has been washed.
pastIt had been washed.
futureIt will have been washed.
conditionalIt would have been washed.
perfect continuouspresentIt has been being washed.
pastIt had been being washed.
futureIt will have been being washed.
conditionalIt would have been being washed.

Active or Passive Quiz

1I ate a piece of chocolate cake.
2The librarian read the book to the students.
3The money was stolen.
4They are paid on Fridays.
5The movie is being made in Hollywood.
6I washed my car three weeks ago.
7His hair was cut by a professional.
8I will introduce you to my boss this week.
9It would have been fixed on the weekend.
10The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time.

 Passive Tense

Our editors find that one of the greatest weaknesses of admissions essays is their frequent use of the passive tense. For this mini-lesson you will learn why the passive voice should be avoided, how to identify it, and how to replace it with the preferred active voice.
Overuse of the passive voice throughout an essay can make your prose seem flat and uninteresting. Sentences in active voice are also more concise than those in passive voice. You can recognize passive-voice expressions because the verb phrase will always include a form of to be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been. The presence of a be-verb, however, does not necessarily mean that the sentence is in passive voice. In sentences written in passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed in the verb; the subject is acted upon. In sentences written in active voice, the subject performs the action expressed in the verb; the subject acts.
EXAMPLES:
(Passive) I was selected to be the tuba player by the band leader.
(Active) The bandleader selected me to be the tuba player.
(Passive) I will be prepared for college as a result of the lessons my mother taught me. (Active) My mother taught me lessons that will prepare me for college
(Passive) I am reminded of her voice every time I hear that song.
(Active) That song reminds me of her voice.

EXERCISE #4: STRONG VERBS vs. WEAK VERBS
Fill in the blanks using the most descriptive or active verb phrase.
1. After working closely with my mentor, I __________ advanced techniques in oil painting.
a) was beginning to master
b) began to master
c) mastered
2. My newspaper article on the labor strikes __________ both praise and criticism.
a) generated
b) got
c) was the recipient of
3. Once I joined the debate team, I __________ the opportunity to compete every weekend.
a) sought
b) had
c) was exposed to
4. Samuel's touchdown __________ the stadium crowd.
a) created much energy in
b) energized
c) really energized
5. Woolf's essay __________ my opinion of gender inequality.
a) challenged
b) made me take another look at
c) was challenging to
6. As Jessica drew near me, I __________ the baton and took off running.
a) grasped
b) got
c) was given
7. Once my mother had fallen asleep, I __________ the dolls on her nightstand.
a) put
b) arranged
c) set up
8. Chris and I __________ an educational project for first-graders in our community.
a) began
b) started
c) initiated
9. "Why didn't you ask me before throwing it away?" Jason __________.
a) hollered
b) said angrily
c) started to yell
10. Mr. Franklin __________ that he was our true father.
a) let us know
b) told us
c) revealed
Answers:
1) c; 2) a; 3) a; 4) b; 5) a; 6) a; 7) b; 8) c; 9) a; 10) c;

Changing Passive Voice to Active Voice
If you want to change a passive-voice sentence to active voice, find the agent in the phrase, the person or thing that is performing the action expressed in the verb. Make that agent the subject of the sentence, and change the verb accordingly. For many instances of the passive voice in your essay, you can follow these steps:
1. Do a global search for the words "was" and then "were." These words often indicate the passive voice.
2. Cross out the "was" or the "were."
3. Add -ed to the verb that follows "was" or "were."
4. If that changed verb does not make grammatical sense, it is an irregular verb, so change it to the simple past tense.
5. Rewrite the sentence around the new active-voice verb.

EXERCISE #5: MAKING SENTENCES MORE ACTIVE
Change these sentences from passive voice to active voice, or note if no change should be made.
1. I was taught by my brother the principles of barbecuing.

___________________________________________
2. My father was given the title by the former head chief.

___________________________________________
3. The house was wrecked by the party and the cat was let loose by the guests.

___________________________________________
4. The house is a mess, the cat is lost, and the car has been stolen by Justin.

___________________________________________
5. Unfortunately, my plan was ruined by Gerald, the building superintendent.

___________________________________________
6. The roof was leaking. It had been leaking all week.

___________________________________________
7. The ball was thrown by Lucy, who had been hiding in the bushes.

___________________________________________
8. Francesca was placed on the first flight to Boston. Her father put her there.

___________________________________________
9. "To be or not to be?" That is the question.

___________________________________________
10. A feast had been created from nothing. I was astounded.

___________________________________________
Answers:
1. My brother taught me the principles of barbecuing.
2. The former head chief gave the title to my father.
3. The party wrecked the house and the guests let the cat loose.
4. The house is a mess, the cat is lost, and Justin has stolen the car.
5. Unfortunately, Gerald, the building superintendent, ruined my plan.
6. No change.
7. Lucy, who had been hiding in the bushes, threw the ball.
8. Francesca's father placed her on the first flight to Boston.
9. No change.
10. A feast had been created from nothing. This astounded me.

EXERCISE #6: PASSIVE-FREE WRITING
Write a 100-word essay on anything at all (preferably relating to your essay topic) without using any form of the verb "to be."

 

Active Voice, Passive Voice

There are two special forms for verbs called voice:
  1. Active voice
  2. Passive voice
The active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. You are probably already familiar with the active voice. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb:
activesubjectverbobject
>
Catseatfish.
The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb:
passivesubjectverbobject
<
Fishare eatenby cats.
The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb:
subjectverbobject
activeEverybodydrinkswater.
passiveWateris drunkby everybody.

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